english VersionDeutsche Version Veterinärmedizinische Fakultät, Universität Leipzig, Institut für Parasitologie (Institutsdirektor: bis 30.Sept.2001 Prof. Dr. Regine Ribbeck; ab 01.Okt.2001 Prof. Dr. A. Daugschies)
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I. The History of Feather Mite Research
II. List of host birds of feather mites by Niethammer
III. Feather mites in the field of vision of the dictionaries

I. The History of Feather Mite Research

The first figure of a feather mite is found in Redis "Opuscula physiologica" from 1729. It deals most probably with the Dermaleichus of the common starling.

Degeer wrote in his book "Published Paper about the History of Insects" page 46 about "Mites with large and thick feet of the third pair", which he found on sparrows and finches in 1740. He criticised the figure from Redi as follows "The figure from Redi is not naturally enough and without hair".

The occupation with feather mites at that time was for the purpose of describing the species and their systematic classification. Koch and Nitzsch, without knowing, described and classified the same feather mite species parallel to one another. Koch named the genus Dermaleichus and Nitzsch Analges.

An extraordinary talent for observation and drawing were necessary for the production of figures, as shown for example in the drawings of Nitzsch and Haller below. Those who work with modern microscopes can hardly imagine how Nitzsch and Haller reached these results with the technology of their time.

In the following some commendable personalities from Germany and Swizerland are introduced, who have become renown in feather mite research.

Carl Ludwig Koch (1778 - 1857)

Christian Ludwig Nitzsch (1782 - 1837)

Christoph Gottfried Andreas Giebel (1820 - 1881)

Gottfried Haller (1853 - 1886)

Hermann Graf Vitzthum (1876 - 1942)

II. List of host birds of feather mites by Niethammer

In the handbook of German Ornithology (published by G. Niethammer) all breeding birds, passage birds, hosts and exceptional hosts (very rarely to be observed) appearing in Gernany are listed. A paragraph on parasites typical for this species (except protozoa) is added to each bird species described. The work on parasite paragraphs had been done by Wd. Eichler (Berlin). Niethammer states in the preface: "As far as there are no parasites listed for a bird species, we can assume that there are none known." In German literature, there cannot be found a comparable work considering parasites – especially feather mites – as comprehensively as this one does.

For this reason, we have set up a list of host birds for feather mites by the description of Niethammer. Breeding birds, passage birds and hosts which are appearing quite often to which Niethammer could not yet assign any feather mites we have listed as potenial mite hosts with the note "no description". Birds appearings as exceptional hosts (very rarely to observed in Germany) we have neglected as feather mites hosts. In our opinion, the level of knowledge at this point of time in Germany has been pointed out relatively simple concerning feather mites. Comparing lists of current interest of feather mites and their hosts (see Gallery) one has to take into account that not only the naming of feather mites but also the scientific nomenclature of birds in Niethammer’s publication is based on the systematic and taxonomic knowledge of his period of time.

Order Passeres – Songbirds

Family Corvidae – Crow family

Genus Corvus

Common Raven (Corvus corax) Gabucinia delibata, Analgopsis corvinus, Trouessartia corvina
Carrion Crow (Corvus corone corone) how C. corax, as well Proctophyllodes corvorum
Hooded Crow (Corvus corone cornix) how C. corax
Rook (Corvus frugilegus frugilegus) how C. c. corone, as well Megninia ginglymura

Genus Coloeus

Jackdaw (Coloeus monedula) Montesauria cylindrica, Analgopsis corvinus

Genus Pica

Black-billed Magpie (Pica pica) Montesauria cylindrica, Analgopsis corvinus

Genus Nucifraga

Nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes) Neonyssus nucifragae

Genus Garrulus

European Jay (Garrulus glandarinus) Megninia glandarii, Rivoltasia latior, Microlichus avus, Proctophyllodes glandarinus

Genus Pyrrhocorax

Red-billed Chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax) no specification
Alpine Chough (Pyrrhocorax graculus) no specification

Family Sturnidae - Starlings

Genus Sturnus

Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) Pteronyssus truncatus, Leiognathus silvarium, Trouessartia rosterii

Genus Pastor

Rosy Starling (Pastor roseus) no specification

Family Oriolidae – Golden oriole

Genus Oriolus

Eurasian Golden Oriole (Oriolus oriolus) no specification

Family Fringillidae – Finch Birds

Genus Coccothraustes

Hawfinch (Coccothraustes coccotraustes) Proctophyllodes ampelidis

Genus Chloris

Greenfinch (Chloris chloris) Analgopsis pachycnemis, Ingrassia oscinum, Leiognathus silviarum, Proctophyllodes pinnatus, Proctophyllodes glandarinus, Alloptes hemiphyllus

Genus Garduelis

Eurasian Goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) Analgopsis passerinus, Proctophyllodes troncatus, Proct. pinnatus, Proct. glandarinus, Leiognathus silviarum
Eurasian Siskin (Carduelis spinus) Proctophyllodes stylifer
Linnet (Carduelis cannabina) Ceratonyssus musculi, Proctophyllodes stylifer, Proct. ampelidis, Proct. pinnatus
Twite (Carduelis flavirostris) no specification
Common Redpoll (Carduelis flammea) no specification
Citril Finch (Carduelis citrinella) no specification

Genus Serinus

European Serin (Serinus canaria serinus) no specification

Genus Pyrrhula

Northern Bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) Proctophyllodes ampelidis, Ptilonyssus sp.

Genus Carpodacus

Common Rosefinch (Carpodacus erythrinus erythrinus) Proctophyllodes vegetans

Genus Pinicola

Pine Grosbeak (Pinicola enucleator enucleator) Alloptes aphyllus

Genus Loxia

Common Crossbill (Loxia curvirostra) no specification
Parrot Crossbill (Loxia pytyopsittacus) Analgopsis poppei
Two-barred Crossbill (Loxia leucoptera) no specification

Genus Fringilla

Chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs) Pteronyssus striatus, Ptilonyssus nudus, Ingrassia oscinum, Joubertia microphylla, Proctophyllodes pinnatus, Alloptes hemiphyllus, Analgopsis passerinus, Syringophilus bipectinatus
Brambling (Fringilla montifringilla) Analgopsis tridentulatus, Analgopsis passerinus, Syringophilus maior, Alloptes hemiphyllus
Snow Finch (Montifringilla nivalis) no specification

Genus Petronia

Rock Sparrow (Petronia petronia) no specification

Genus Passer

House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) Analgopsis passerinus, Rivoltasia dermicola, Proctophyllodes p.passeris, Proct.troncatus, Micolichus avus, Ptilonyssus nudus, Analges chelopus, Syringophilus bipectinatus
Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus) Analgopsis passerinus, Proctophyllodes p. passeris, Proct.troncatus

Genus Emberiza

Corn Bunting (Emberiza calandra) Alloptes hemiphyllus, Analges chelopus, Proctophyllodes sp.
Yellowhammer (Emberiza citrinella) Analges chelopus, Analges nitzschii, Analgopsis coleopteroides, Proctophyllodes glandarinus, Proct.pinnatus
Pine Bunting (Emberiza leucocephala) no specification
Black-headed Bunting (Emberiza melancocephala) no specification
Red-headed Bunting (Emberiza icterica) no specification
Yellow-breasted Bunting (Emberiza aureola) no specification
Cirl Bunting (Emberiza cirlus) Ptilonyssus nudus, Heteropsorus pteroptopus
Black-faced Bunting (Emberiza spodocephala ologoxantha) no specification
Ortolan Bunting (Emberiza hortulana) Analges nitzschii, Proctophyllodes anthi.
Rock Bunting (Emberiza cia) no specification
Rustic Bunting (Emberiza rustica) no specification
Little Bunting (Emberiza pusilla) no specification
Reed Bunting (Emberiza schoeniclus) Analgopsis tridentulatus, Heteropsorus pteroptopus
Lapland Bunting (Calcarius lapponicus) no specification
Snow Bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis) Analges nitzschii, Proctophyllodes megaphyllus

Family Alaudidae – Larks

Genus Melanocorypha

Calandra Lark (Melancorypha calandra) no specification
White-winged Lark (Melanocorypha leucoptera) no specification
Black Lark (Melanocorypha yeltoniensis) no specification

Genus Calandrella

Greater Short-toed Lark (Calandrella brachydactyla) no specification

Genus Galerida

Crested Lark (Galerida cristata cristata) no specification

Genus Lullula

Wood Lark (Lullula arborea) Pterodectes bilobatus, Analgopsis tridentulatus

Genus Alauda

Skylark (Alauda arvensis) Proctophyllodes picae subsp., Proct. glandarinus,Pterodectes bilobatus, Analgopsis pachycnemis, Analgopsis tridentulatus, Analgopsis bidentatus

Genus Eremophila

Shore Lark (Eremophila alpestris flava) Pterodectes reticulifer, Proctophyllodes troncatus, Pterodectes bilobatus, Analgopsis pachycnemis, Analgopsis tridentulatus

Family Motacillidae - Wagtails

Genus Anthus

Richard`s Pipit (Anthus richardi richardi) no specification
Tawny Pipit (Anthus campestris) no specification
Tree Pipit (Anthus trivialis) Proctophyllodes anthi, Pterodectes bilobatus, Analgopsis bidentatus, Trouessartia corvina
Meadow Pipit (Anthus pratensis) Proctophyllodes picae subsp., Pterodectes bilobatus, Analgopsis tridentulatus, Microlichus uncus
Red-Throated Pipit (Anthus cervinus) no specification
Water Pipit (Anthus spinoletta) Proctophyllodes picae subsp.
Rock Pipit (Anthus spinoletta petrosus) no specification

Genus Motacilla

Yellow Wagtail (Motacilla flava flava) no specification
Masked Wagtail (Motacilla flava feldegg) Trouessartia appendiculata, Proctophyllodes macedo
Citrine Wagtail (Motacilla citreola) no specification
Grey Wagtail (Motacilla cinerea) no specification
White Wagtail (Motacilla alba) Analges chelopus, Analgopsis pachycnemis, Ingrassia oscinum,Proctophyllodes sp., Leiognathus silviarum
Black Wagtail (Motacilla alba yarrellii) no specification

Family Certhiidae – Tree-Creeper

Genus Certhia

Eurasian Treecreeper (Certhia familiaris) Analges certhiae
Short-Toed Treecreeper (Certhia brachydactyla) no specification

Genus Tichodroma

Wallcreeper (Tichodroma muraria) Analgopsis affinis

Family Sittidae – Nuthatch

Genus Sitta

Eurasian Nuthatch (Sitta europaea caesia) no specification

Family Paridae – Timouses

Genus Parus

Great Tit (Parus major) Proctophyllodes stylifer, Proct. glandarinus, Analges chelopus, Analgopsis mucronatus, Analgopsis.passerinus
Blue Tit (Parus caeruleus) Pteronyssus parinus, Proctophyllodes stylifer, Analgopsis mucronatus
Azure Tit (Parus cyanus) no specification
Coal Tit (Parus ater) Proctophyllodes stylifer
Crested Tit (Parus cristatus) Analgopsis passerinus
Marsh Tit (Parus palustris) Proctophyllodes stylifer
Willow Tit (Parus atricapillus) no specification

Genus Aegithalos

Long-Tailed Tit (Aegithalos caudatus) Proctophylodes glandarinus, Syringophilus bipectinatus

Genus Remiz

Eurasian Penduline Tit (Remiz pendulinus) no specification

Genus Panurus

Bearded Reedling (Panurus biarmicus) Analgopsis mucronatus, Proctophyllodes pinnatus

Genus Regulus

Goldcrest (Regulus regulus) no specification
Firecrest (Regulus ignicappillus) Proctophyllodes glandarinus

Family Laniidae – Shrikes

Genus Lanius

Lesser Grey Shrike (Lanius minor) Proctophyllodes glandarinus, Proct. passeris subsp.
Great Grey Shrike (Lanius excubitor) Proctophyllodes pinnatus, Proct.polyandrius, Trouessartia gracilipes, Analgopsis integer.
Woodchat Shrike (Lanius senator) no specification
Red-backed Shrike (Lanius collurio) Proctophyllodes picae subsp. (this speciers of frequently occurring feather mites genus appears variably on different small birds)

Family Bombycillidae – Silktail

Genus Bombycilla

Bohemian Waxwing (Bombycilla garrulus) Proctophyllodes ampelidis, Ingrassia oscinum

Family Muscicapidae – Warblers

Subfamily Muscicapinae - Flycatcher

Genus Muscicapa

Spotted Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata) Analgopsis clavipes, Analgopsis. incertus, Pteronyssus integer.
Pied Flycatcher (Muscicapa hypoleuca) no specification
Collared Flycatcher (Muscicapa albicollois) no specification
Red-Breasted Flycatcher (Muscicapa parva) no specification

Subfamily Sylviinae – Warblers

Genus Phylloscopus

Chiffchaff (Phylloscopus collybita) Proctophyllodes glandarinus
Willow Warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus) no specification
Greenish Warbler (Phylloscopus trochiloides) no specification
Western Bonelli`s Warbler (Phylloscopus bonelli) no specification
Wood Warbler (Phylloscopus sibilatrix) no specification
Arctic Warbler (Phylloscopus borealis) no specification
Yellow-browed Warbler (Pylloscopus inornatus) no specification
Pallas`s Leaf Warbler (Phylloscopus proregulus) no specification

Genus Herbivocula

Radde`s Warbler (Herbivocula schwarzi) no specification

Genus Locustella

River Warbler (Locustella fluviatilis) no specification
Savi`s Warbler (Locustella luscinioides) no specification
Pallas`s Grasshopper (Locustella certhiola) no specification
Grasshopper Warbler (Locustella naevia) no specification
Lanceolated Warbler (Locustella lanceolata) no specification

Genus Acrocephalus

Sedge Warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus) no specification
Aquatic Warbler (Acrocephalus paludicola) Trouessartia bifurcata
Great Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) "Pteronyssus" pallens (The genus needs to be split up; pallens has to be placed into another genus, therefore the quotation marks), Analgopsis bidentatus (a unequivocal identification of the species is especially difficult in the mite genera of Analgopsis, Analges, Mesalges und Megninia because of the appearance of at one hand "heteromorphological" males – having strongly determined secondary sexual characteristics and on the other hand "homoiomorphological" males – without these characteristics and furthermore these with blending characteristics.), Trouessartia edwardsii.
Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) no specification
Marsh Warbler (Acrocephalus palustris) no specification
Paddyfield Warbler (Acrocephalus agricola) no specification

Genus Hippolais

Icterine Warbler (Hippolais icterina) Analgopsis spiniger
Melodious Warbler (Hippolais polyglotta) no specification
Olivaceous Warbler (Hippolais pallida) no specification
Booted Warbler (Hippolais caligata) no specification

Genus Sylvia

Barred Warbler (Sylvia nisoria) Trouessartia bifurcata, Proctophyllodes stylifer
Orphean Warbler (Sylvia hortensis) no specification
Garden Warbler (Sylvia borin) Trouessartia bifurcata, Leiognathus silviarium, Proctophyllodes anthi
Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla) Leiognathus silviarum, Proctophyllodes glandarinus, Proct. picae subsp., Rivoltasia quatra, Trouessartia corvina
Common Whitethroat (Sylvia communis) Trouessartia bifurcata, Analges chelopus, Leiognathus silviarum
Lesser Whitethroat (Sylvia curruca) Trouessartia bifurcata, Leiognathus silviarum

Subfamily Turdinae - Thrushs

Genus Erythropygia

Rufous Scrub Robin (Erythropygnia galactotes) Trouessartia edwardsii

Genus Turdus

Northern Scaly Thrush (Turdus dauma) no specification
Siberian Trush (Turdus sibiricus) no specification
Fieldfare (Turdus pilaris) Proctophyllodes musicus, Syringophilus bipectinatus (the various, at this point yet relatively little known species of the genus are living on the inside of flight feathers of wing and flight feathers of tail; the mainly occurring species of mites is normally typical in poultry)
Mistle Trush (Turdus viscivorus) no specification
Song Trush (Turdus ericetorum) Proctophyllodes glandarinus, Proct. musicus
Redwing (Turdus musicus) Proctophyllodes glandarinus, Syringophilus bipectinatus
Ring Ouzel (Turdus torquatus alpestris) Proctophyllodes musicus
Blackbird (Turdus merula) Proctophyllodes glandarinus, Proctophyllodes weigoldi

Genus Monticola

Rock Thrush (Monticola saxatilis) Proctophyllodes glandarinus

Genus Oenanthe

Northern Wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe) Proctophyllodes picae subsp.

Genus Saxicola

Whinchat (Saxicola rubetra) no specification
Stonechat (Saxicola torquata) no specification

Genus Phoenicurus

Common Redstart (Phoenicurus phoenicurus) Proctophyllodes glandarinus
Black Redstart (Phoenicurus ochruros) no specification

Genus Luscinia

Rufous Nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos) no specification
Trush Nightingale (Luscinia luscinia) Ingrassia oscinum
Bluethroat (Luscinia svecica svecica) Analges chelopus, Proctophyllodes glandarinus
Bluethroat (Luscinia svecica cyanecula) Heteropsorus pteroptopus

Genus Erithacus

European Robin (Erithacus rubecula) Ingrassia oscinum, Proctophyllodes glandarinus

Family Prunellidae

Genus Prunella

Alpine Accentor (Prunella collaris) Proctophyllodes megaphyllus
Dunnock (Prunella modularis) Alloptes modularis, Analgopsis bidentatus, Analgopsis pachycnemis, Analgopsis pollicipatus,Proctophyllodes megaphyllus

Family Troglodytidae – Wrens

Genus Troglodytes

Winter Wren (Troglodytes troglodytes) Analgopsis passerinus, Proctophyllodes sp., Syringophilus bipectinatus

Family Cinclidae – Dippers

Genus Cinclus

White-Throated Dipper (Cinclus cinclus aquaticus) Trouessartia corvina

Family Hirundinidae – Swallows

Genus Hirundo

Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica) Microlichus uncus (the female mite places its eggs Onto certain areas of the wing of the lousee fly Ornithomyia biloba, and probably the mite larvae parasite on top of the louse fly, whereas the following stages of mites are being found in the epidermis of the alary articulation of the bird), "Pteronyssus" obscurus

Genus Delichon

Common House Martin (Delichon urbica) Megninia aestivalis subintegra, Pterodectes rutilus, "Pteronyssus" infuscatus, "Pteronyssus" obscurus, Trouessartia appendiculata minutipes

Genus Riparia

Sand Martin (Riparia riparia) Megninia aestivalis subintegra, Pterodectes rutilus, "Pteronyssus" infuscatus, "Pteronyssus" nuntiaeveris, "Pteronyssus" obscurus, Syringophilus bipectinatus
Eurasian Crag Martin (Riparia rupestris) Trouessartia corvina

Family Picidae – Woodpeckers

Genus Picus

Green Woodpecker (Picus viridis) Analgopsis pachycnemis, Mesalges picimaioris, Pteronyssus gracilis, Trouessartia corvina
Grey-headed Woodpecker (Picus canus) Rivoltasia quatrata
Great Spotted (Dryobates major) Analges chelopus, Analgopsis corvinus, Analgopsis pachycnemis, Megninia sp., Mesalges picimaioris
White-backed Woodpecker (Dryobates leucotos) no specification
Lesser Spotted Woodpecker (Dryobates minor) no specification
Middle Spotted Woodpecker (Dryobates medius) Microlichus avus, Pteronyssus brevipes
Three-toed Woodpecker (Picoides tridactylus) no specification
Black Woodpecker (Dryocopus martius) Analgopsis pachycnemis, Megninia ginglymura, Mesalges picimaioris, Myialges anchora, Pteronyssus gracilis
Northern Wryneck (Jynx torquilla) Proctophyllodes anthi, Proctophyllodes glandarinus

Family Micropodidae - Swifts

Genus Micropus

Common Swift (Micropus apus) Alloptes cypseli, Analgopsis tridentulatus, Eustathia cultrifer, Megninia aestivalis, Proctophyllodes sp., Pterodectes rutilus, Pteronyssus sp., Trouessartia appendiculata
Alpine Swift (Micropus melba) Eustathia cultrifer

Family Upupidae

Genus Upupa

Eurasian Hoopoe (Upupa epops) no specification

Family Meropidae – Bee-Eater

Genus Merops

European Bee-Eater (Merops apiaster) Analges analgoides, Pterolichus cuculi, Ptilonyssoides triscutatus

Family Alcedinidae - Kingfishers

Genus Alcedo

Common Kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) no specification

Family Coraciidae – Rollers

Genus Coracias

European Roller (Coracias garrulus) Analgopsis corvinus

Order Caprimulgus - Nightjars

Family Caprimulgidae – Nightjars

Genus Caprimulgus

European Nightjar (Caprimulgus europeus) Rhinonyssus nitzschi

Order Striges – Owls

Family Strigidae – Owls

Genus Nyctea

Snowy Owl (Nyctea scandiaca) no specification

Genus Bubo

Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) Megninia strigisoti

Genus Asio

Long-Eared Owl (Asio otus) Kramerella lunulata, Megninia strigisoti, Protalges attenuatus
Short-Eared Owl (Asio flammeus) Kramerella lunulata

Genus Otus

European Scops Owl (Otus scops) no specification

Genus Aegolius

Tengmalm’s Owl (Aegolius funereus) Kramerella l.lunulata, Protalges attenuatus

Genus Athene

Little Owl (Athene noctua) Kramerella lunulata

Genus Glaucidium

Eurasian Pygmy Owl (Glaucidium passerinum) no specification

Genus Surnia

Hawk Owl (Surnia ulula) no specification

Genus Strix

Great Grey Owl (Strix nebulosa) no specification
Ural Owl (Strix uralensis) Megninia aluconis
Tawny Owl (Strix aluco) Kramerella lunulata, Mesalges aluconis

Subfamily Tytoninae

Genus Tyto

Barn Owl (Tyto alba) Kramerella lunulata, Megninia strigisoti

Order Cuculi

Family Cuculidae –Cuckoos

Genus Cuculus

Common Cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) Pterolichus cuculi, Ptilonyssus sp., Xolalges scaurus (Federmilbe des Kuckucks: Genus kommt nur auf dem Kuckuck vor: ein Parallelfall zu der Eigenart der Kuckucksfederlinge!)

Order Accipitres – Birds of Prey

Family Falconidae – Birds of Prey

Genus Falco

Peregrine (Falco peregrinus germanicus) Kramerella lunulata major, Megninia strigisoti, Protalges attenuatus
Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) no specification
Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) no specification
Eurasian Hobby (Falco subbuteo) Pterolichus minor
Merlin (Falco columbaris) no specification
Red-Footed Falcon (Falco vespertinus) no specification
Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanni) no specification
Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) Megninia sp., Protalges accipitrinus

Genus Aquila

Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos fulva) no specification
Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) no specification
Tawny Eagle (Aquila rapax) no specification
Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) no specification
Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina) no specification

Genus Hieraaetus

Bonelli’s Eagle (Hieraaetus fasciatus) no specification
Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus) no specification

Genus Buteo

Long-legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus) no specification
Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo) Pterolichus aquilinum
Steppe Buzzard (Buteo buteo zimmermannae) no specification
Rough-legged Buzzard (Buteo lagopus) no specification

Genus Circus

Western Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus) no specification
Hen Harrier (Circus cyaneus) no specification
Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus) no specification
Harrier (Circus pygargus) Gabucinia nisi

Genus Accipiter

Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) Gabucinia nisi, Pterolichus aquilinum
Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) Dermoglyphus elongatus (meist in den Federschäften; die Art ist sonst nur vom Haushuhn und Kanarienvogel bekannt), Gabucinia nisi (Deutonymphe lebt subkutan z.B. am Ellenbogen), Megninia sp., Protalges accipitrinus

Genus Milvus

Red Kite (Milvus milvus) no specification
Black Kite (Milvus migrans) no specification

Genus Heliaeetus

White-tailed Eagle (Heliaeetus albicilla) Mesalges picimajoris, Pterolichus obtusus

Genus Pernis

Western Honey Buzzard (Pernis apivorus) Gabucinia nisi

Genus Circaetus

Short-toed Eagle (Circaetus gallicus) no specification

Genus Pandion

Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) Bonnetella fusca

Genus Gypaetus

Lammergeier (Gypaetus barbatus) no specification

Genus Neophron

Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) no specification

Genus Gyps

Eurasian Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus) no specification

Genus Aegypius

Monk Vulture (Aegypius monachus) no specification

Order Gressores – Wading Birds

Family Ciconiidae – Storks

Genus Ciconia

White Stork (Cicionia cicionia) Freyana pelargica, Pterolichus ciconiae, Xoloptes didactylus
Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) Feyana pelargica

Family Plegadidae – Ibisse

Genus Platalea

Eurasian Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia) Megninia ibidis, Pteralloptes megnini

Genus Plegadis

Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus) Megninia ibidis, Pteralloptes megnini falcinelli

Genus Geronticus

Northern Bald Ibis (Geronticus eremita) no specification

Family Ardeidae – Heron

Genus Ardea

Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea) no specification
Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea) no specification

Genus Egretta

Great Egret (Egretta alba) no specification
Little Egret (Egretta garzetta) no specification

Genus Ardeola

Squacco Heron (Ardeola ralloides) no specification

Genus Nyxcticorax

Black-Crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) no specification

Genus Ixobrychus

Little Bittern (Ixobrychus minutus) no specification

Genus Botaurus

Great Bittern (Botaurus stellaris) Pteralloptes stellaris

Order Phoenicopteri - Flamingos

Family Phoenicopteridae – Flamingos

Genus Phoenicopterus

Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber antiquorum) no specification

Order Steganopodes - Pelicans

Family Pelecanidae – Pelicans

Genus Pelicanus

Great White Pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus) no specification

Family Sulidae – Gannet

Genus Sula

Northern Gannet (Sula bassana) Michaelichus caputmedusae

Familie Phalacrocoracidae – Comorants

Genus Phalacrocorax

Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) Michaelichus heteropus
Shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) Michaelichus heteropus
Pygmy Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmaeus) no specification

Order Anseres – Ducks and Geese

Family Anatidae – Ducks and Geese

Genus Cygnus

Whooper Swan (Cygnus cygnus) no specification
Bewick’s Swan (Cygnus bewickii) no specification
Mute Swan (Cygnus olor) Freyana anserina

Genus Anser

Greylag Goose (Anser anser) Freyana anserina
White-fronted Goose (Anser albifrons) no specification
Lesser White-fronted Goose (Anser erythropus) no specification
Bean Goose (Anser fabalis) no specification
Pink-footed Goose (Anser fabalis brachyrhynchus) no specification

Genus Branta

Brent Goose Brant (Branta bernicla) no specification
Barnacle Goose (Branta leucopsis) no specification
Red-breasted Goose (Branta ruficollis) no specification

Genus Tadorna

Common Shelduck (Tadorna tadorna) no specification

Genus Casarca

Ruddy Shelduck (Casarca ferruginea) no specification

Genus Anas

Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) Freyana anatina, Ingrassia velata, Megninia ginglymura
Common Teal (Anas crecca) Freyana anatina
Garganey (Anas querquedula) Bdellorhynchus polymorphus, Freyana anatina
Gadwall (Anas strepera) no specification
Eurasian Wigeon (Anas penelope) Freyana anatina
Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) Freyana anatina, Proctophyllodes aquaticus

Genus Spatula

Northern Shoveler (Spatula clypeata) Bdellorhynchus polymorphus

Genus Netta

Red-crested Pochard (Netta rufina) no specification

Genus Nyroca

Common Pochard (Nyroca ferina) no specification
Ferruginous Duck (Nyroca nyroca) no specification
Tufted Duck (Nyroca fuligula) Freyana anatina
Greater Scaup (Nyroca marila) no specification

Genus Bucephala

Common Goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) no specification

Genus Clangula

Lonh-tailed Duck (Clangula hyemalis) no specification

Genus Oidemia

Velvet Scoter (Oidemia fusca) Freyana anatina
Common Scoter (Oidemia nigra) Freyana anatina

Genus Somateria

Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) Freyana anatina, Rhinonyssus levinsi

Genus Mergus

Goosander (Mergus merganser) Freyana anatina, Ptilonyssus nudus
Red-breasted Merganser (Mergus serrator) Avenzoaria sp., Freyana anatina
Smew (Mergus albellus) Alloptes crassipes minor

Order Tubinares – Petrels

Family Procellariidae - Petrels

Genus Hydrobates

European Storm-Petrel (Hydrobates pelargicus) Alloptes longirostris, Giebelia puffini, Ingrassia oceanica, Pterodectes pelagicus, Pteronyssus puffini

Genus Oceanodroma

Leach’s Storm-Petrel (Oceanodroma leucorrhoa) no specification

Genus Fulmarus

Northern Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) Giebelia puffini

Order Podicipedes – Podicipediformes

Genus Podiceps

Great Crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus) Pterolichus colymbi maior
Red-Necked Grebe (Podiceps griseigena) no specification
Horned Grebe (Podiceps auritus) no specification
Black-Necked Grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) no specification
Little Grebe (Podiceps ruficollis) no specification

Order Colymbi – Seadiver

Genus Colymbus

Great Northern Diver (Colymbus immer) no specification
Black-Thorated Diver (Colymbus arcticus) no specification
Red-Thorated Diver (Colymbus stellatus) Pterolichus colymbi maior

Order Columbae – Pigeons

Genus Columba

Wood Pigeon (Columba palumbus) Falculifer rostratus, Sarcopterinus nidulans, Pterophagus strictus, Megninia columbae
Stock Dove (Columba oenas) Falculifer rostratus, Megninia columbae, Pterophagus strictus, Sarcopterinus nidulans

Genus Streptopelia

Turtle Dove (Streptopelia turtur) Megninia columbae

Order Alcae - Auks

Genus Alca

Razorbill (Alca torda) Allopes crassipes minor

Genus Uria

Common Guillemont (Uria aalge) Alloptes crassipes conura
Brünnich’s Guillemont (Uria lomvia) no specification

Genus Cepphus

Black Guillemont (Cepphus grylle) Alloptes crassipes minor

Genus Fratercula

Atlantic Puffin (Fratercula arctica) Alloptes crassipes minor

Order Laro-Limicolae – Waders and Gulls

Family Burhinidae - Dewlaps

Genus Burhinus

Stone-Curlew (Burhinus oedicnemus) no specification

Family Charadriidae – Plovers

Genus Vanellus

Northern Lapwing (Vanellus vanellus) Ingrassia centropodos, Megninia gallinulae subsp.

Genus Squatarola

Grey Plover (Squatarola squatarola) Pterolichus squatarolae, Pterolichus buchholzi, Thecarthra longitarsa (in Federschäften)

Genus Pluvialis

Golden Plover (Pluvialis apricarius) Thecarthra longitarsa (in Federschäften)

Genus Charadrius

Common Ringed Plover (Charadrius hiaticula) Avenzoaria charadrii, Pterolichus charadrii, Rhinonyssus echinipes, Thecarthra bouveti (in Federschäften)
Little Ringed Plover (Charadrius dubius) Avenzoaria charadrii, Syringobius tricalcarata (in Federspulen)
Kentish Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus) Avenzoaria charadrii
Eurasian Dotterel (Charadrius morinellus) no specification

Genus Arenaria

Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres) Pterolichus buchholzi fascigera, Thecarthra trouessarti (in Federschäften)

Genus Calidris

Curlew Sandpiper (Calidris ferruginea) no specification
Dunlin (Calidris alpina) Alloptes bisetatus, Alloptes crassipes conura, Alloptes crassipes crassipes, Avenzoaria totani??, sp., Avenzoaria tringae
Little Stint (Calidris minuta) Avenzoaria totani, Avenzoaria tringae, Ingrassia tringae, Syringobia tringae (in Federspulen)
Temminck’s Stint (Calidris temminckii) no specification
Red Knot (Calidris canutus) Proctophyllodes megaphyllus, Pterolichus buchholzi fascigera
Purple Sandpiper (Calidris maritima) Alloptes bisetatus, Rhinonyssus neglectus, Syringobia chelopus

Genus Crocethia

Sanderling (Crocethia alba) no specification

Genus Philomachus

Ruff / Reeve (Philomachus pugnax) Alloptes crassipes conura, A.crassipes crassipes, Avenzoaria totani sp., Avenzoari tringae

Genus Limicola

Broad-billed Sandpiper (Limicola falcinellus) no specification

Genus Tringa

Spotted Redshank (Tringa erythropus) no specification
Redshank (Tringa totanus) Alloptes gambettae, Avenzoaria bengalensis, Avenzoaria calidridis, Avenzoaria grallatoris, Avenzoaria indica, Avenzoaria limicolae, Avenzoaria totani, Avenzoaria tringae, Plutarchia chelopus, Pterolichus buchholzi fascigera, Pteronyssus gracilipes, Sammonia interfolia, Syringobia calidridis, Syringobia chelopus, Syringobia totani (The Plutarchia- and Syringobia-species are living inside of feather shafts.), Syringophilus totani, Thecarthra bouveti (in the feather shaft).
Marsh Sandpiper (Tringa stagnatilis) no specification
Greenshank (Tringa nebularia) Sphaerogastra thylacodes
Green Sandpiper (Tringa ochropus) Syringobia calcerata (in Federschäften), Syringophilus helleri
Wood Sandpiper (Tringa glareola) no specification

Genus Actitis

Common Sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucos) Avenzoaria charadrii, Megninia forcipata

Genus Phalaropus

Grey Phalarope (Phalaropus fulicarius) Avenzoaria sp.
Red-necked Phalarope (Phalarropus lobatus) no specification

Genus Himantopus

Black-winged Stilt (Himantopus himantopus) Pterolichus rehbergi gracilis, Avenzoraria charadrii

Genus Recurvirostra

Pied Avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta) Avenzoaria charadrii

Genus Limosa

Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa) Alloptes crassipes conura, Alloptes crassipes crassipes, Avenzoaria sp., Avenzoaria tringae, Pterolichus buchholzi
Bar-tailed Godwit (Limosa lapponica) Avenzoaria limosae selenura, Thecarthra setigera (in Federschäften), Megninia forcipata

Genus Numenius

Eurasian Curlew (Numenius arquata) Alloptes crassipes crassipes, Pterolichus winnii
Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) Avenzoaria numenii, Pterolichus numenii

Genus Scolopax

Eurasian Woodcock (Scolopax rusticola) Microlichus avus, Proctophyllodes glandarinus, Proctophyllodes scolopacinus, Proctophyllodes scolopacis

Genus Capella

Common Snipe (Capella gallinago) Alloptes flagellicaulus, Avenzoaria charadrii
Great Snipe (Capella media) Microlichus avus

Genus Lymnocryptes

Jack Snipe (Lymnocryptes minimus) Avenzoaria charadrii

Genus Haematopus

Eurasian Oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus) Avenzoaria charadrii

Family Laridae – Gull family

Subfamily Sterninae – Terns

Genus Chlidonias

Black Tern (Chlidonias nigra) Alloptes bisetatus, Thecarthra simplex simplex, Thecarthra simplex tyroglyphina (die Arten leben im Inneren der Federschäfte)
White-winged Tern (Chlidonias leucoptera) Thecarthra simplex tyroglyphina
Whiskered Tern (Chlidonias hybrida) no specification

Genus Gelochelidon

Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica) no specification

Genus Hydroprogne

Caspian Tern (Hydroprogne tschegrava) Thecarthra theca (im Inneren der Federschäfte)

Genus Sterna

Sandwich Tern (Sterna sandvicensis) Alloptes bisetatus
Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) Anoplonotus semaphorus, Alloptes bisetatus, Freyana anatina, Giebelia puffini, Pterolichus martini, Thecarthra sp. (in Federschäften)
Arctic Tern (Sterna macrura) Giebelia puffini, Picobia heeri, Pteronyssus sp.
Little Tern (Sterna albifrons) Alloptes crassipes crassipes, Giebelia puffini, Thecarthra sp. (im Inneren der Federschäfte)

Subfamily Larinae – True gull

Genus Xema

Sabine’s Gull (Xema sabinii) Giebelia puffini

Genus Larus

Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) no specification
Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) Mesalges puffini
Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus) Syringophilus major, Thecarthra sp.
Common Gull (Larus canus) Alloptes crassipes conura, Giebelia puffini, Pteronyssus sp.
Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus) no specification
Mediterranean Gull (Larus melanocephalus) no specification
Little Gull (Larus minutus) no specification
Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundud) Alloptes crassipes conura, A.c. minor, Giebelia puffini

Genus Rissa

Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) Alloptes crassipes conura

Subfamily Stercorariinae – Skuas

Genus Stercorarius

Great Skua (Stercorarius skua) no specification
Pomarin Skua (Stercorarius pomarinus) no specification
Parasitic Skua (Stercorarius parasiticus) Alloptes bisetatus, Giebelia puffini, Thecarthra theca subsp.
Long-tailed Skua (Stercorarius longicaudus) Giebelia puffini

Order Otides – Bustards

Genus Otis

Great Bustard (Otis tarda) Rhinonyssus nitzschi
Little Bustard (Otis tetrax) no specification

Order Grues – Cranes

Genus Grus

Common Crane (Grus grus) no specification

Order Ralli – Crake

Genus Rallus

Water Rail (Rallus aquaticus) Ingrassia velata, Megninia gallinulae subsp., Megninia rallorum, Pteralloptes megnini

Genus Porzana

Spotted Crake (Porzana porzana) Alloptes quadrisetatus, Megninia g. gallinulae, Megninia g. major, Megninia gallinulae subsp., Pterodectes ortygometrae, Pterolichus porzanae, Trouessartia corvina
Baillon’s Crake (Porzana pusilla) Dermation bihamatum
Little Crake (Porzana parva) no specification

Genus Crex

Corn Crake (Crex crex) Pteroliochus rallorum (Deutonymphe endoparasitisch)

Genus Gallinula

Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) Megninia gallinulae gallinulae, Megninia grossa, Proctophyllodes glandarinus

Genus Fulica

Eurasian Coot (Fulica atra) no specification

Order Galli – Galliformes

Subfamily Phasianinae - True fowls

Genus Lagopus

Willow Grouse (Lagopus lagopus) Pseudalloptes bimucronatus
Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) Pseudalloptes bimucronatus

Genus Lyrurus

Black Grouse (Lyrurus tetrix) Megninia tetraonis

Genus Tatrao

Western Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) no specification

Genus Tetrastes

Hazel Grouse (Tetrastes bonasia) no specification

Genus Alectoris

Rock Partridge (Alectoris graeca) no specification
Red-legged Partridge (Alectoris rufa) Pterolichus obtusus, Rivoltasia bifurcata maior, Xoloptes claudicans

Genus Perdix

Grey Partridge (Perdix perdix) Microlichus perdicis,Pterolichus obtusus, Xoloptes claudicans

Genus Coturnix

Common Quail (Coturnix coturnix) Megninia gallinulae subsp., Pterodectes bilobatus, Xoloptes claudicans

Genus Phasianus

Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) Megninia ginglymura, Pterolichus "obtusus"

III. Feather mites in the field of vision of the dictionaries

A look in the following 22 encyclopedias shows that feather mites compared to feather lice are not nearly as well-known. Feather mites were described in only six, quill mites in three and feather follicle mites in five. Without consideration of two special encyclopedias (Encyclopedia of Veterinary Medicine and The Big Encyclopedia of Bird Care by Franz Robiller) the result would have even been poorer.

Feather lice in comparison were mentioned in 18 encyclopedias:

General Encyclopedia of Science and Art by J.S. Ersch und J.G. Gruber, Leipzig, 1818

Feather mites: not as an independent keyword; but in Acarus there is a lengthy discourse covening feather mites by Nitzsch
Quill mites: no
Feather follicle mites: no
Feather lice: no